The Sea and Civilization, Bibliography (Chapters 6–10)

Chapter 6: The Indian Ocean to the Seventh Century

Agatharchides of Cnidus. On the Erythraean Sea. Translated by Stanley M. Burstein. London: Hakluyt Society, 1989.

Ali, Abdul. “The Arabs as Seafarers.” Islamic Culture 54:4 (1980): 211–20.

Arrian. The Anabasis of Alexander and Indica. Translated by P.A. Brunt. 2 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976–83.

Aryasura, and Peter Khoroche. Once the Buddha Was a Monkey: Arya Sura’s Jatakamala. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1989.

Blench, Roger. “The Ethnographic Evidence for Long-Distance Contacts between Oceania and East Africa.” In The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, edited by Julian Reade, 417–38. London: Kegan Paul, 1996.

Casson, Lionel. “Cinnamon and Cassia in the Ancient World.” In Lionel Casson, Ancient Trade and Society, 225–46. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1984.

Casson, Lionel. “New Light on Maritime Loans: PVindob.G 40882.” Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 84 (1990): 195–206.

Casson, Lionel, trans. The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Chakravarti, Ranabir. “Early Medieval Bengal and the Trade in Horses: A Note.” JESHO 42:2 (1999): 194–211.

Christides, Vassilios. “Two Parallel Naval Guides of the Tenth Century: Qudama’s document and Leo VI’s Naumachia: A Study on Byzantine and Moslem Naval Preparedness.” Graeco-Arabica 1 (1982): 51–103.

Cosmas Indicopleustes. The Christian Topography of Cosmas, An Egyptian Monk. Trans. J.W. McCrindle. London: Hakluyt, 1897.

Cowell, Edward B., trans. The Jataka; Or, Stories of the Buddha’s Former Births. 1895–1907. Reprint, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.

Crone, Patricia. Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1987.

Deloche, Jean. “Iconographic Evidence on the Development of Boat and Ship Structures in India (2nd C. B.C.-15TH C. A.D.” In Tradition and Archaeology: Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean, edited by Himanshu Prabha Ray and Jean-François Salles, 199–224. New Delhi: Manohar, 1999.

Dio Chrysostom. Discourses. 5 vols. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1932–51.

Duncan-Jones, Richard. Economy of the Roman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974.

Faxian. The Travels of Fa-hian. In Xuanzang, Si-yu-ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World. Trans. Samuel Beal. 1884. Reprint, New Delhi: Oriental Books, 1969.”

Herodotus. The Histories. Translated by Aubrey de Sélincourt. 1954. New ed., New York: Penguin, 1996.

Hornell, James. “Boat Oculi Survivals: Additional Records.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 68 (1938): 339–48.

———. “Indonesian Influence on East African Culture.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 64 (1934): 305–32.

———. “The Role of Birds in Early Navigation.” Antiquity 20 (1946): 142–49.

Ilanko Atikal. The Tale of an Anklet: An Epic of South India. The Cilappatikaram of Ilanko Atikal. Translated by R. Parthasarathy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Islam, Sirajul, and Sajahan Miah, eds. “Trade and Commerce.” Available online.

The Jātaka: or, Stories of the Buddha’s Former Births. Translated by E. B. Cowell, et al. 1895–1907. Reprint London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.

Johnstone, Paul. The Sea-craft of Prehistory. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980.

The Kautilya “Arthasastra,” Part II. Edited by R.P. Kangle. 2nd ed. Bombay: University of Bombay, 1972.

Laws of Manu. Translated by Wendy Doniger with Brian K. Smith. New York: Penguin, 1991.

Levi, Sylvain. “Manimekhala, a Divinity of the Sea.” Indian Historical Quarterly 6:4 (1930): 597–614.

Manguin, Pierre-Yves. “Southeast Asian Shipping in the Indian Ocean during the First Millennium A.D.” In Tradition and Archaeology: Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean, edited by Himanshu Prabha Ray and Jean-François Salles, 181–97. New Delhi: Manohar, 1999.

Mariners’ Museum. Aak to Zumbra: A Dictionary of the World’s Watercraft. Edited by Beverly McMillan, Susannah Livingston and Susan Beaven Rutter. Newport News, Va.: Mariners’ Museum, 2000.

McGrail, Sean. Boats of the World from the Stone Age to Medieval Times. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2001.

Mukund, Kanakalatha. The Trading World of the Tamil Merchant: Evolution of Merchant Capitalism in the Coromandel. Hyderabad: Orient Longman, 1999.

Müller, F. Max, ed. Sacred Books of the East. 50 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1879–1910.

Peacock, David, and Lucy Blue, eds. Myos Hormos-Quseir al-Qadim: Roman and Islamic Ports on the Red Sea. Vol. 1, Survey and Excavations, 1999–2003. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2006

Pearson, M.N. “Introduction.” In India and the Indian Ocean 1500–1800, edited by Ashin Das Gupta and M.N. Pearson, 1–24. Calcutta: Oxford Univ. Press, 1987.

Pliny the Elder. Natural History. Translated by H. Rackham. 10 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1938–1963.

Plutarch. Plutarch’s Lives, Trans. P. Bernadotte. 11 vols. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1967.

Procopius. History of the Wars; The Secret History; Buildings. Trans. H.B. Dewing. 7 vols. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1924–40.

Polybius. The Histories. Translated by W.R. Paton. 8 vols. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1927.

Potts, D. T. “The Parthian Presence in the Arabian Gulf.” In The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, edited by Julian Reade, 269–85. London: Kegan Paul, 1996.

Pritchard, James B. The Ancient Near East. Vol. 1, An Anthology of Text and Pictures. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1958.

Procopius. [History of the Wars; The Secret History; Buildings.] Translated by H.B. Dewing. 7 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1924–40.

Ray, Himanshu Prabha. “Early Coastal Trade in the Bay of Bengal.” In The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, edited by Julian Reade, 351–64. London: Kegan Paul, 1996.

Ray, Himanshu Prabha. Monastery and Guild: Commerce under the Satavahanas. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Ray, Himanshu Prabha. “A Resurvey of Roman Contacts with the East.” In Marie-Françoise Boussac and Jean-François Salles, eds. Athens, Aden, Arikamedu: Essays on the Interrelations between India, Arabia, and the Eastern Mediterranean, 97–114. New Delhi: Manohar, 1995.

Ray, Himanshu Prabha. “The Yavana Presence in Ancient India.” In Marie-Françoise Boussac and Jean-François Salles, eds. Athens, Aden, Arikamedu: Essays on the Interrelations between India, Arabia, and the Eastern Mediterranean, 76–82. New Delhi: Manohar, 1995.

Redmount, Carol. “The Wadi Tumilat and the Canal of the Pharaohs.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 54 (1994): 127–35.

Rgveda Samhita: Vol. I. Translated by H.H. Wilson and Bhasya of Sayanacarya; edited by Ravi Prakash Arya and K.L. Joshi. Delhi: Parimal Publications, 1997.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians. New York: Praeger, 1991.

Salles, Jean-François. “Achaemenid and Hellenistic Trade in the Indian Ocean.” In The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, edited by Julian Reade, 251–67. London: Kegan Paul, 1996.

Salomon, Richard. “On the Origin of the Early Indian Scripts: A Review Article.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 115:2 (1995): 271–79.

Sedov, A. V. “Qana’ (Yemen) and the Indian Ocean: The Archaeological Evidence.” In Tradition and Archaeology: Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean: Proceedings of the International Seminar “Techno-Archaeological Perspectives of Seafaring in the Indian Ocean, 4th cent. B.C.-15th cent. A.D.”, edited by Himanshu Prabha Ray and Jean-Francois Salles, 11–35. New Delhi, February 28–March 4, 1994. 1996.

Sharma, R.S. “Usury in Early Medieval Times.” In Trade in Early India, edited by Ranabir Chakravarti, 370–95. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Shattan, Merchant-Prince. Manimekhalaï (The Dancer with the Magic Bowl). Translated by Alain Danielou. New York: New Directions, 1989.

Sidebotham, Steven E. “Ports of the Red Sea and the Arabia-India Trade.” In Vimala Begley and Richard Daniel De Puma, eds. Rome and India: The Ancient Sea Trade, 12–38. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991.

Somerville, Boyle G., and A.F.B. Woodhouse. Ocean Passages for the World. Winds and Currents. London: The Admiralty, 1950.

Strabo. The Geography of Strabo. Translated by H.L. Jones. 8 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1917–32.

Tacitus. Annals of Imperial Rome. Translated by Michael Grant. Revd. ed. New York: Penguin, 1956.

Thapar, Romila. Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Tripati, Sila. Maritime Archaeology: Historical Descriptions of the Seafarings of the Kalingas. New Delhi: Kaveri Books, 2000.

Uruthirankannanar. “Pattinapalai.” In J.V. Chelliah, trans., Pattupattu: Ten Tamil Idylls. Thanjavur: Tamil University Press, 1985.

Villiers, Alan. The Monsoon Seas: The Story of the Indian Ocean. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1952.

Wachsmann, Shelley. Seagoing Ships & Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant. College Station: Texas A&M Univ. Press, 1998.

Weerakkody, D.P.M. “Sri Lanka through Greek and Roman Eyes.” In Sri Lanka and the Silk Road of the Sea, edited by Senake Bandaranayake et al., 163–72. Colombo: Sri Lanka National Commission for UNESCO/Central Cultural Fund, 1990.

Weerakkody, D.P.M. Taprobanê: Ancient Sri Lanka as known to Greeks and Romans. Turnhout: Brepols, 1997.

Wendrich, W. Z., R. S. Tomber, S. E. Sidebotham, et al. “Berenike Crossroads: The Integration of Information.” Journal of the Economic & Social History of the Orient 46:1 (2003): 46–88.

Wheeler, Mortimer. Rome Beyond the Imperial Frontiers. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1954.

Whitehouse, David. “Sasanian Maritime Activity.” In In The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, edited by Julian Reade, 339–49. London: Kegan Paul, 1996.

Wilkinson, J. C. “A Sketch of the Historical Geography of Trucial Oman Down to the Beginning of the Sixteenth Century.” Geographical Journal 130 (1964): 337–49.

Winius, George D. “Shadow Empire in the Bay of Bengal.” In Portugal, the Pathfinder: Journeys from the Medieval Towards the Modern World 1300–ca. 1600, edited by George D. Winius, 247–68. Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 1995.

Wink, André. Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. 3 vols. Leiden: Brill, 1996–2002.

Wolters, O.W. Early Indonesian Commerce: A Study of the Origins of Srivijaya. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1967.

Young, Gary K. Rome’s Eastern Trade: International Commerce and Imperial Policy, 31 BC-AD 305. New York: Routledge, 2001.

 

Chapter 7: China and Southeast Asia to the Seventh Century

Ban, Gu. Food and Money in Ancient China: The Earliest Economic History of China to A.D. 25: Han Shu 24, with related texts, Han Shu 91 and Shih-chi 129. Translated by Nancy Lee Swann. 1950. Reprint New York: Octagon Books, 1974.

Bandaranayake, Senake, et. al., eds. Sri Lanka and the Silk Road of the Sea. Colombo: Sri Lanka National Commission for UNESCO and the Central Cultural Fund, 1990.

Bellwood, Peter S. Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago. Honolulu: Univ. of Hawai’i Press, 1997.

———. “Southeast Asia before History.” In The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia. Vol. 1, pt. 1, From Early Times to c. 1500, edited by Nicholas Tarling, 55–136. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Bellwood, Peter, and Judith Cameron. “Ancient Boats, Boat Timbers, and Locked Mortise-and-Tenon Joints from Bronze/Iron-Age Northern Vietnam.” IJNA 36:1 (2007): 2–20.

Bielenstein, Hans. Diplomacy and Trade in the Chinese World 589–1276. Leiden: Brill, 2005.

Brown, Delmer M. “The Yamato Kingdom.” In The Cambridge History of Japan. Vol. 1,Ancient Japan, edited by Delmer M. Brown, 108–62. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Casson, Lionel, trans. The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Chang, Chun-shu, and Joan Smythe. South China in the Twelfth Century: A Translation of Lu Yu’s Travel Diaries, July 3–December 6, 1170. Hong Kong: Chinese Univ. Press, 1981.

Chin, James K. “Ports, Merchants, Chieftains and Eunuchs: Reading Maritime Commerce of Early Guangdong.” In Guangdong: Archaeology and Early Texts, ed. by Shing Muller, Thomas O. Höllmann and Putao Gui, 217–39. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2004.

Crespigny, Rafe de. Generals of the South: The Foundation and Early History of the Three Kingdoms State of Wu. Canberra: Australian National University, Faculty of Asian Studies, 1990. Internet edition 2004. Available online.

Confucius. The Analects of Confucius (Lun Yu). Trans. Chichuang Huang. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1999.

Deng, Gang. Chinese Maritime Activities and Socioeconomic Development c. 2100 b.c. 1900 a.d. Westport: Greenwood, 1997.

———. Maritime Sector, Institutions, and Sea Power of Premodern China. Westport: Greenwood, 1999.

Elvin, Mark. The Pattern of the Chinese Past. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1973.

Faxian. The Travels of Fa-hian. In Xuanzang, Si-yu-ki.

Graff, David A. Medieval Chinese Warfare, 300–900. London: Routledge, 2002.

Grenet,Frantz. “Les marchands sogdiens dans les mers du Sud à l’époque préislamique.” Cahiers d’Asie centrale 1/2 (1996): 65–84.

Hall, Kenneth R. “Local and International Trade and Traders in the Straits of Melaka Region: 600–1500.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 47:2 (2004): 213–60.

Hall, Kenneth R. Maritime Trade and State Development in Early Southeast Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985.

Hill, John E., trans. The Western Regions According to the Hou Hanshu: The Xiyu juan. From Hou Hanshu 88. 2nd ed. 2003. http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/texts/hhshu/hou_han_shu.html

Iryŏn. Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea. Translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Seoul: Yonsei University Press, 1972.

Jacq-Hergoualc’h, Michel. The Malay Peninsula Crossroads of the Maritime Silk Road (100 bc-1300 ad). Leiden: Brill, 2002.

Lee, Ki-Baik. A New History of Korea. Translated by Edward W. Wagner, with Edward J. Shultz. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984

Kim, Zae-Geun. “An Outline of Korean Shipbuilding History.” Korea Journal (1989 October): 4–17.

Lu, David J. Japan: A Documentary History. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.

Manguin, Pierre-Yves. “The Archaeology of Early Maritime Polities of Southeast Asia.” InSoutheast Asia from Prehistory to History, edited by Ian Glover and Peter Bellwood, 282–313. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

Manguin, Pierre-Yves. “The Southeast Asian Ship, An Historical Approach.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 11:2 (1980): 266–76.

Manguin, Pierre-Yves. “Southeast Asian Shipping in the Indian Ocean during the First Millennium A.D.” In Tradition and Archaeology: Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean, edited by Himanshu Prabha Ray and Jean-François Salles, 181–97. New Delhi: Manohar, 1999.

Manguin, Pierre-Yves. “Trading Ships of the South China Sea.” JESHO 36:3 (1993): 253–280.

McGrail, Sean. Boats of the World from the Stone Age to Medieval Times. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2001.

Needham, Joseph, with Wang Ling and Lu Gwei-djen. Science and Civilization in China. Vol. 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 3, Civil Engineering and Nautics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.

Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697. Translated by W.G. Aston. 1924. Reprint Rutland, Vt.: Charles E. Tuttle, 1972.

Ray, Himanshu Prabha. “Early Coastal Trade in the Bay of Bengal.” In The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, edited by Julian Reade, 351–64. London: Kegan Paul, 1996.

Ray, Himanshu Prabha. Monastery and Guild: Commerce under the Satavahanas. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Shiba, Yoshinobu, and Mark Elvin. Commerce and Society in Sung China. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, Univ. of Michigan, 1970.

Sima Qian. Records of the Grand Historian. Translated by Burton Watson. Rev. ed. 2 vols. New York: Renditions-Columbia University Press, 1993.

Southworth, William A. “The Coastal States of Champa.” In Southeast Asia from Prehistory to History, edited by Ian Glover and Peter Bellwood, 209–233. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

Spennemann, Dirk R. “On the Bronze Age Ship Model from Flores, Indonesia.”International Journal of Nautical Archaeology14.3 (1985): 237–241.

Stuart-Fox, Martin. A Short History of China and Southeast Asia: Tribute, Trade and Influence. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2003.

Sutherland, Heather. “Southeast Asian History and the Mediterranean Analogy.” JSEAS 34:1 (2003): 1–20.

Taylor, Keith W. The Birth of Vietnam. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1983.

Van Slyke, Lyman P. Yangtze: Nature, History and the River. Stanford: Stanford Alumni Assoc., 1988.

Wang Gungwu. The Nanhai Trade: The Early History of Chinese Trade in the South China Sea. 2nd ed. Singapore: Times Academic Press, 1998.

Wheatley, Paul. The Golden Khersonese: Studies in the Historical Geography of the Malay Peninsula before A.D. 1500. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, 1961.

Wheeler, Mortimer. Rome Beyond the Imperial Frontiers. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1954.

Wolters, O. W. Early Indonesian Commerce: A Study of the Origins of Srivijaya. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1967.

Worcester, G. R. G. The Junks and Sampans of the Yangtze. Annapolis: Naval Institute, 1971.

Wright, Arthur F. The Sui Dynasty. New York: Knopf, 1978.

Yu Huan. The Peoples of the West: From the Weilue, A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 ce. Draft English translation by John E. Hill, September, 2004. http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/texts/weilue/weilue.html#section13.

Zheng, Yangwen. China on the Sea: How the Maritime World Shaped Modern China. Leiden: Brill, 2012.

 

Chapter 8: The Byzantine and Muslim Mediterranean

Agius, Dionisius A. Classic Ships of Islam: From Mesopotamia to the Indian Ocean. Leiden: Brill, 2008.

Ahrweiler, Helene. Byzance et la mer. Paris: Presses Universitaire de France, 1966.

Anna Comnena. Alexiad. Translated by E. R. A. Sewter. New York: Penguin, 1969.

Ashburner, Walter. The Rhodian Sea-Law. 1909. Reprint Aalen, Germany: Scientia Verlag, 1976.

Aziz Ahmad. A History of Islamic Sicily. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1975.

Baladhuri, Ahmad ibn Yahya. The Origins of the Islamic State. Translated by Philip Khuri Hitti. 1916. Reprint Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2002.

Bass, G. F. “A Byzantine Trading Venture.” Scientific American 225 (Aug. 1971) 22–33.

Bass, George F., et al. Serçe Limanı: An Eleventh-Century Shipwreck. Vol. 1, The Ship and Its Anchorage, Crew, and Passengers. College Station: Texas A&M Univ. Press, 2004.

Bass, G. F., and F. H. van Doorninck, Jr. “An 11th-Century Shipwreck at Serçe Limani, Turkey.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 7 (1978) 119–32.

Bass, G. F., and F. H. van Doorninck, Jr. “A Fourth-Century Shipwreck at Yassi Ada.”American Journal of Archaeology 75 (1971): 27–37.

Bass, G. F., and F. H. van Doorninck, Jr. Yassi Ada. Vol. 1, A Seventh-Century Byzantine Shipwreck. College Station, Tex.: IJNA, 1982.

Bramoullé, David. “Recruiting Crews in the Fatimid Navy (909–1171).” Medieval Encounters 13 (2007): 4–31.

Bury, J.B. A History of the Eastern Roman Empire from the Fall of Irene to the Accession of Basil I. 1912. Reprint New York: Russell and Russell, 1965.

Byrne, Eugene H. “Commercial Contracts of the Genoese in the Syrian Trade of the Twelfth Century.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 31:1 (1916): 128–70.

Castro, Filipe, N. Fonseca, T. Vacas, and F. Ciciliot. “A Quantitative Look at Mediterranean Lateen- and Square-Rigged Ships (Part 1).” IJNA 37:2 (2008): 347–59.

Christides, Vasilios. The Conquest of Crete by the Arabs (ca. 824): A Turning Point in the Struggle between Byzantium and Islam. Athens: Akademia Athenon, 1984.

Christides, Vasilios. “Fireproofing of War Machines, Ships and Garments.” In Sailing Ships of the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Vol. 1. Edited by Christos G. Makrypoulias. Athens: Kuwait F.A.S., 1998.

Christides, Vasilios. “Milaha.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, edited by C.E. Bosworth, E. van Dozel, W.P. Heindrichs, and Ch. Pellat. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1993.

Christides, Vasilios. “Two Parallel Naval Guides of the Tenth Century: Qudama’s document and Leo VI’s Naumachia: A Study on Byzantine and Moslem Naval Preparedness.” Graeco-Arabica 1 (1982): 51–103.

Citarella, Armand O. “The Relations of Amalfi with the Arab World before the Crusades.” Speculum 42 (1967): 299–312.

Constable, Olivia Remie. “The Problem of Jettison in Medieval Mediterranean Maritime Law.” Journal of Medieval History 20 (1994): 207–20.

Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. De administrando imperio. Translated by R.J.H. Jenkins. Rev. ed. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, 1985.

Cosentino, Salvatore. “Constans II and the Byzantine Navy.” Byzantinische Zeitschrift 100:2 (2007): 577–603.

Cross, Samuel Hazzard, and Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor, trans. Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian text. Cambridge: Mediaeval Academy of America, 1953.

Davidson, H.R. Ellis. “The Secret Weapon of Byzantium.” Byzantinische Zeitschrift 66 (1973): 61–74.

Einhard and Notker the Stammerer. Two Lives of Charlemagne. Translated by Lewis Thorpe. New York: Penguin, 1969.

Fahmy, Aly Mohamed. Muslim Naval Organization in the Eastern Mediterranean from the Seventh to the Tenth Century A.D. 2nd ed. Cairo: National Publication & Printing House, 1966.

García Moreno, L. A. “Creation of Byzantium’s Spanish Province: Causes and Propaganda.”Byzantion 66 (1996): 101–19.

Goitein, S. D. A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza. 5 vols. 1967. Reprint Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

Goitein, S. D., and Mordechai A. Friedman. India Traders of the Middle Ages: Documents from the Cairo Geniza, India Book.” Leiden: Brill, 2008.

Haldane, Douglas. “The Fire-Ship of Al-Salih Ayyub and Muslim Use of ‘Greek Fire.’” In The Circle of War in the Middle Ages: Essays on Medieval Military and Naval History, edited by Donald J. Kagay and L.J. Andrew Villalon. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1999.

Haldon, John. “Military Service, Military Lands, and the Status of Soldiers.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 47 (1993): 1–67.

Haywood, John. Dark Age Naval Power: A Reassessment of Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Seafaring Activity. Revised ed. Hockwold-cum-Wilton, Norfolk: 1999.

Hill, George. History of Cyprus. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1940.

Hitti, Philip K. History of the Arabs from the Earliest Times to the Present. 10th ed. New York: St. Martin’s, 1970.

Hourani, George F. Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times. Revised and expanded by John Carswell. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Ibn Khaldun. The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History. Translated by Franz Rosenthal. 3 vols. Bollingen Series 43. New York: Pantheon Books, 1958.

Jackson, Richard P. “From Profit-Sailing to Wage-Sailing: Mediterranean Owner-Captains and their Crews during the Medieval Commercial Revolution.” Journal of European Economic History 18:3 (1989): 605–28.Top of Form

Kaminiates, John. The Capture of Thessaloniki. Translated by David Frendo and Athanasios Fotiou. Perth: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 2000.

Jenkins, R. J. H. “Cyprus between Byzantium and Islam, A.D. 688–965.” In Studies Presented to D. M. Robinson, ed. by G.E. Mylonas, 2.1006–1014. St. Louis: Washington University, 1953.

Khalilieh, Hassan S. Admiralty and Maritime Laws in the Mediterranean Sea (Ca. 800–1050): The Kitāb Akriyat Al-Sufun Vis-à-Vis the Nomos Rhodion Nautikos. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

Khalilieh, Hassan S. Islamic Maritime Law: An Introduction. Leiden: Brill, 1998.

Koran

Kubiak, Wladyslaw B. “The Byzantine Attack on Damietta in 853 and the Egyptian Navy in the 9th Century.” Byzantion 40 (1970): 45–66.

Laiou, Angeliki E. “Byzantine Traders and Seafarers.” In The Greeks and the Sea, ed. by Spyros Vryonis, Jr., 79–96. New Rochelle: Caratzas, 1992.

Lewis, Archibald. Naval Power and Trade in the Mediterranean, A.D. 500–1000. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951.

Lombard, Maurice. “Arsenaux et bois de marine dans la Méditerranée musulmane (VIIe-XIe siècle).” In Le navire et l’économie maritime du Moyen-Age au XVIIIe siècle principalement en Méditerranée, ed. by M. Mollat, 53–106. Paris: S.E.V.P.E.N., 1958.

Lopez, Robert S. The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages, 950–1350. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Lot, Ferdinand. The End of the Ancient World and the Beginnings of the Middle Ages. 1931. Reprint New York: Harper and Row, 1961.

Makrypoulias, Christos G. “Byzantine Expeditions against the Emirate of Crete c. 825–949.”Graeco-Arabica 7–8 (2000): 347–362.

McCormick, Michael. Origins of the European Economy: Communications and Commerce, AD 300–900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

McGrail, Sean. Boats of the World from the Stone Age to Medieval Times. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2001.

Muqaddasi, Muhammad ib Ahmad Al-. The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions: A Translation of Ahsan al-Taqasi fi Marifat al-Aqalim. Trans. Basil Anthony Collins. Reading, UK: Centre for Muslim Contribution to Civilisation/Garnet, 1994.

Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1957.

Paine, Lincoln P. “A Pax Upon You: Preludes and Perils of American Imperialism.” Clio’s Psyche 10:3 (Dec. 2003): 91–97.

Paine, Lincoln P. Ships of the World: An Historical Encyclopedia. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Parker, A.J. Ancient Shipwrecks of the Mediterranean & the Roman Provinces. Oxford, Eng.: Tempus Reparatum, 1992.

Pérez-Mallaína, Pablo E. Spain’s Men of the Sea: Daily Life on the Indies Fleets in the Sixteenth Century. Trans. Carla Rahn Phillips. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1998.

Picard, Christophe. “Baḥriyyūn, émirs et califes: l’origine des équipages des flottes musulmanes en Méditerranée occidentale (VIIIe-Xe siècle).” Medieval Encounters 13 (2007): 413–51.

Planhol, Xavier de. L’Islam et la mer: La mosquée et le matelot VIIe-Xxe siecle. Paris: Perrin, 2000.

Procopius. [History of the Wars; The Secret History; Buildings.] Translated by H.B. Dewing. 7 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1924–40.

Pryor, John H. “From Dromon to Galea: Mediterranean Bireme Galleys, ad 500–1300.” In Gardiner and Morrison, eds., The Age of the Galley, 101–16.

———. Geography, Technology and War: Studies in the Maritime History of the Mediterranean, 649–1571. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1988.

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———. “The Origins of the Commenda Contract.” Speculum 52:1 (1977): 5–37.

Pryor, John H., and Elizabeth M. Jeffreys, with Ahmad Shboul. The Age of the Dromon: The Byzantine Navy ca 500–1204. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

Rankov, Boris. “Fleets of the Early Roman Empire, 31 BC to AD 324.” In The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels since Pre-Classical Times, edited by J.S. Morrison, 78–85. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1995.

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———. “Byzantine Trade and Industry.” In The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, edited by M.M. Postan, et al., vol. 2, pp. 132–67. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Steffy, J. Richard. “The Reconstruction of the 11th Century Serçe Liman Vessel. A Preliminary Report.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 11 (1982): 13–34.

Stratos, Andreas N. “The Naval Engagement at Phoenix.” 1980. Reprinted in Studies in 7th-Century Byzantine Political History, Andreas N. Stratos. London: Variorum Reprints, 1983. pp. 230–247.

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Taha, Abd al-Wahid Dhannun. The Muslim Conquest and Settlement of North Africa and Spain. New York: Routledge, 1989.

Theophanes, the Confessor. The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor: Byzantine and Near Eastern History, AD 284–813. Translated by Cyril Mango and Roger Scott. New York : Oxford University Press, 1997.

Unger, Richard W. The Ship in the Medieval Economy, 600–1600. London: Croom Helm, 1980.

van Doorninck, Frederick H., Jr. “The 4th-century Wreck at Yassi Ada: An Interim Report on the Hull.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 5 (1976): 115–131.

Zosimus. New History. Translated by Ronald T. Ridley. Canberra: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 1982.

 

Chapter 9: Northern European Seas through the Viking Age

Adam of Bremen. History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen. Translated by Francis J. Tschau. New York: Columbia University Press, 1959.

Alcuin of York, ed. Stephen Allott. Alcuin of York, c. a.d. 732 to 804: His Life and Letters. York: William Sessions Ltd., 1974.

Ambrosiani, Björn. “The Prehistory of Towns in Sweden.” In The Rebirth of Towns in the West ad, 700–1050, ed. by Richard Hodges and Brian Hobley, 63–68. Oxford: Council for British Archaeology, 1988.

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Arenhold, Capt. L. “The Nydam Boat at Kiel.” Mariner’s Mirror 4 (1914): 182–185.

Ari Thorgilsson. The Book of the Icelanders (Íslendingabók). Translated by Halldór Hermannsson. Ithaca: Cornell University Library, 1930.

Bachrach, Bernard S. “On the Origins of William the Conqueror’s Horse Transports.”Technology and Culture 26:3 (1985): 505–31. Reprinted in Warfare and Military Organization in Pre-Crusade Europe. Ashgate: Variorum, 2002.

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Bede. A History of the English Church and People. Translated by Leo Sherley-Price. New York: Penguin Books, 1968.

Beowulf. Translated by Seamus Heaney. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000.

Bessason, Haraldur, Paul Edwards, and Hermann Pálsson. The Book of Settlements. Winnipeg: Univ. of Manitoba Press, 1972.

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Boardman, John. The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade. 4th ed. London: Thames and Hudson, 1999.

Brøgger, A.W., and Haakon Shetelig. The Viking Ships: Their Ancestry and Evolution. Translated by Katherine John. Los Angeles: K.K. Mogensen, 1953.

Brutzkus, J. “Trade with Eastern Europe, 800–1200.” Economic History Review 13:1/2 (1943): 31–41.

Caesar, Julius. The Conquest of Gaul. Translated by J.M. Cohen. New York: Penguin Books, 1981.

Campbell, Alistair, ed. Encomium Emmae Reginae. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998.

Carver, M.O.H. “Pre-Viking Traffic in the North Sea.” In Maritime Celts, Frisians and Saxons, ed. Seán McGrail, 117–25. London: Council for British Archaeology, 1990.

Christensen, Arne Emil. “Proto-Viking, Viking and Norse Craft.” In Robert Gardiner and A.E. Christensen, eds. The Earliest Ships: The Evolution of Boats into Ships, 72–88. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1996.

Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. De administrando imperio. Translated by R.J.H. Jenkins. Rev. ed. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, 1985.

Cross, Samuel Hazzard, and Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor, trans. Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian text. Cambridge: Mediaeval Academy of America, 1953.

Crumlin-Pedersen, Ole. “Boats and Ships of the Baltic Sea in the 9th and 10th Centuries: The Archaeological and Iconographic Evidence.” In Wulfstan’s Voyage: The Baltic Sea Region in the Early Viking Age as Seen from Shipboard, edited by Anton Englert and Athena Trakadas, 235–56. Roskilde: Viking Ship Museum, 2009.

Crumlin-Pedersen, Ole. “The Skuldelev Ships.” Acta Archaeologica 38 (1967): 73–174.

Cunliffe, Barry W. The Extraordinary Voyage of Pytheas the Greek. New York: Walker, 2002.

Cunliffe, Barry W. Facing the Ocean: The Atlantic and its People 8000 bc-ad 1500. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2001.

Dennis, Andrew, Peter Foote, and Richard Perkins, trans. Laws of Early Iceland—Grágás: The Codex Regius of Grágás with Material from Other Manuscripts. Winnipeg: Univ. of Manitoba Press, 1980.

De Paor, Máire. Patrick, the Pilgrim Apostle of Ireland. New York: Regan, 2002.

DeVries, Kelly. The Norwegian Invasion of England in 1066. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1999.

Dunlop, D. M. The History of the Jewish Khazars. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1954.

Einhard and Notker the Stammerer. Two Lives of Charlemagne. Translated by Lewis Thorpe. New York: Penguin, 1969.

El-Hajji, A.A. “The Andalusian Diplomatic Relations with the Vikings during the Umayyad Period.” Hesperis Tamuda 8 (1967): 67–110.

Evans, Angela Care. The Sutton Hoo Ship Burial. London: British Museum Press, 1986.

Fernández-Armesto, Felipe. “The Stranger-Effect in Early Modern Asia.” In Shifting Communities and Identity Formation in Early Modern Asia, ed. by Leonard Blussé and Felipe Fernández-Armesto, 181–202. Leiden: KITLV, 2003.

Flodoard of Reims. The Annals of Flodoard of Reims, 919–966. Translated by Steven Fanning and Bernard S. Bachrach. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press, 2004.

Gifford, Edwin, and Joyce Gifford. “The Sailing Performance of Anglo-Saxon Ships as Derived from the Building and Trials of Half-Scale Models of the Sutton Hoo & Graveney Ship Finds.” Mariner’s Mirror 82 (1996): 131–153.

Gimbutas, Marija Alseikaite. The Balts. New York: Praeger, 1963.

Greenland Saga. In The Vinland Sagas: The Norse Discovery of America (Graenlendinga SagaEirik’s Saga), translated by Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Pálsson. New York: Penguin Books, 1965.

Haywood, John. Dark Age Naval Power: A Reassessment of Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Seafaring Activity. Revised ed. Hockwold-cum-Wilton, Norfolk: 1999.

Herodotus. The Histories. Translated by Aubrey de Sélincourt. 1954. New ed., New York: Penguin, 1996.

Höckmann, Olaf. “Late Roman Rhine Vessels from Mainz, Germany.” International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 22 (1993): 125–135.

Höckmann, Olaf. “Late Roman River Craft from Mainz, Germany.” In Local Boats, Fourth International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology, Porto 1985, edited by O.L. Filgueiras. BAR International Series 438:23–34. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1988.

Hollister, C. Warren. Anglo-Saxon Military Institutions: On the Eve of the Norman Conquest. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962.

Holmqvist, Wilhelm. “Helgö, An Early Trading Settlement in Central Sweden.” In Recent Archaeological Excavations in Europe, ed. by Rupert Bruce-Mitford, 111–32. London: Routledge, 1975.

Jesch, Judith. “Who was Wulfstan.” In Wulfstan’s Voyage: The Baltic Sea Region in the Early Viking Age as Seen from Shipboard, edited by Anton Englert and Athena Trakadas, 29–36. Roskilde: Viking Ship Museum, 2009.

Jones, Gwyn. A History of the Vikings. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.

Jöns, Hauke. “Ports and Emporia of the Southern Coast: from Hedeby to Usedom and Wolin.” In Wulfstan’s Voyage: The Baltic Sea Region in the Early Viking Age as Seen from Shipboard, edited by Anton Englert and Athena Trakadas, 160–81. Roskilde: Viking Ship Museum, 2009.

King Harald’s Saga. Translated by Hermann Pálsson. New York: Penguin, 1966.

Kirby, David, and Merja-Liisa Hinkkanen. The Baltic and North Seas. London: Routledge, 2000.

Lapidge, Michael, ed. Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999.

Larson, Laurence Marcellus, trans. The King’s Mirror. New York: American-Scandinavian Foundation, 1917.

Lebecq, Stéphane. Marchands et navigateurs frisons du haut Moyen Age. [Lille]: Presses universitaires de Lille, 1983.

———. “The Northern Seas: (Fifth to Eighth Centuries).” In The New Cambridge Medieval History. Vol. 1, c. 500–c. 700, ed. by Paul Fouracre, 639–60. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995.

Leitholdt, Eva, Christoph Zielhofer, Stefanie Berg-Hobohm, et al. “Fossa Carolina: The First Attempt to Bridge the Central European Watershed—A Review, New Findings, and Geoarchaeological Challenges.” Geoarchaeology 27:1 (2012): 88–104.

Lund, Niels, ed.; Christine E. Fell, trans. Two Voyagers at the Court of King Alfred: The Ventures of Ohthere and Wulfstan, together with the Description of Northern Europe from the Old English Orosius. York, England: William Sessions, 1984.

Magnusson, Magnus. The Vikings. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus, 2000.

Magnússon, Sigurdur A. Northern Sphinx: Iceland and the Icelanders from the Settlement to the Present. Reykjavik: The English Bookshop, 1977.

Magnusson, Magnus, and Hermann Pálsson, trans. The Vinland Sagas: The Norse Discovery of America (Graenlendinga Saga and Eirik’s Saga). Baltimore: Penguin, 1965.

Marcus, G. J. The Conquest of the North Atlantic. Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press, 1980.

Marsden, Peter. A Ship of the Roman Period: From Blackfriars, in the City of London. London: Guildhall Museum, 1967.

Mason, David J. P. Roman Britain and the Roman Navy. Stroud: Tempus, 2003.

McGhee, Robert. “Epilogue: Was There Continuity from Norse to Post-Medieval Explorations of the New World?” In Contact, Continuity, and Collapse: The Norse Colonization of the North Atlantic, ed. by James H. Barett, 239–48. Turnhout: Brepols, 2003.

McGrail, Sean. “Boats and Boatmanship in the Southern North Sea and Channel.” InMaritime Celts, Frisians and Saxons, edited by Seán McGrail, 32–48. London: Council for British Archaeology, 1990.

McGrail, Sean. “Romano-Celtic Boats and Ships: Characteristic Features.” IJNA 24:2 (1995): 139–45.

Middleton, Neil. “Early Medieval Port Customs, Tolls and Controls on Foreign Trade.” Early Medieval Europe 13:4 (2005): 313–58.

Milne, Gustav. “Maritime Traffic between the Rhine and Roman Britain: A Preliminary Note.” In Maritime Celts, Frisians and Saxons, edited by Seán McGrail, 82–85. London: Council for British Archaeology, 1990.

Milne, Gustav and Damian Goodburn. “The Early Medieval Port of London ad 700–1200.”Antiquity 64 (1990): 629–36.

Ó Corráin, Donnchadh. “Vikings in Ireland and Scotland in the Ninth Century.” Peritia 12 (1998): 296-339.

Ó Cróinin, Dáibhi. A New History of Ireland. Vol. 1, Prehistoric and Early Ireland. New York: Oxord University Press, 2003.

Oddr Snorrason, and Theodore Murdock Andersson. The Saga of Olaf Tryggvason. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 2003.

Olsen, Olaf, and Ole Crumlin-Pedersen. Five Viking Ships from Roskilde Fjord. Copenhagen: The National Museum, 1978.

Paine, Lincoln P. Ships of the World: An Historical Encyclopedia. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Rimbert, Saint. Anskar, the Apostle of the North. Translated by Charles H. Robinson. London: Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1921.

Rodger, N.A.M. The Safeguard of the Sea, 660–1649. London: Harper Collins, 1997.

Rule, Margaret, and Jason Monaghan. A Gallo-Roman Trading Vessel from Guernsey: The Excavation and Recovery of a Third Century Shipwreck. Candie Gardens: Guernsey Museums & Galleries, 1993.

Sawyer, Peter. “The Viking Expansion.” In The Cambridge History of Scandinavia. Vol. 1, Prehistory to 1520, ed. by Knut Helle, 104–20. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003.

Seaver, Kirsten A. The Frozen Echo: Greenland and the Exploration of North America, Ca. A.D. 1000–1500. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1996.

Severin, Tim. The Brendan Voyage: A Leather Boat Tracks the Discovery of America by the Irish Sailor Saints. New York: McGraw Hill, 1978.

Sheehan, John. “The Longphort in Viking Age Ireland.” Acta Archaeologica 79 (2008): 282–95.

Sjövold, Thorleif. The Oseberg Find and the Other Viking Ship Finds. Oslo: Universitets Oldsaksamling, 1966.

Skovgaard-Petersen, Inge. “Early Political Organisation: The Making of the Danish Kingdom.” In The Cambridge History of Scandinavia. Vol. 1, Prehistory to 1520, ed. by Knut Helle, 168–83. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003.

Skre, Dagfinn. “The Sciringes healh of Ohthere’s Time.” In Ohthere’s Voyages: A Late 9th-century Account of Voyages along the Coasts of Norway and Denmark and Its Cultural Context, edited by Janet Bately and Anton Englert, 150–56. Roskilde: Viking Ship Museum, 2007.

Snorri Sturluson. King Harald’s Saga. Trans. Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Pálsson. New York: Penguin, 1966.

Snorri Sturluson. The Story of Olaf Tryggvison. In The Stories of the Kings of Norway, called the Round World (Heimskringla), translated by William Morris and Eiríkr Magnússon, vol. 1, pp. 223–378. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1893.

Squatriti, Paolo. “Digging Ditches in Early Medieval Europe.” Past and Present 176 (2002): 11–65.

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Storli, Inger. “Ohthere and His World.” In Ohthere’s Voyages: A Late 9th-century Account of Voyages along the Coasts of Norway and Denmark and Its Cultural Context, edited by Janet Bately and Anton Englert, 76–99. Roskilde: Viking Ship Museum, 2007.

Strabo. The Geography of Strabo, Trans. Horace Leonard Jones and J.R. Sitlington Sterrett. London: Heinemann, 1917–32.

Swanton, Michael James, trans. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. London: Phoenix Press, 2001.

Tacitus. The Agricola and the Germania. Trans. H. Mattingly and S.A. Handford. Baltimore: Penguin, 1970.

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The Vinland Sagas: The Norse Discovery of America (Graenlendinga Saga and Eirik’s Saga), translated by Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Pálsson. New York: Penguin Books, 1965.

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Wallace, Birgitta Linderoth. “L’Anse aux Meadows and Vinland.” In Contact, Continuity and Collapse: The Norse Colonization of the North Atlantic, ed. by James H. Barrett, 207–33. Turnhout: Brepols, 2003.

Warner of Rouen, ed. by Christopher J. McDonough. “Moriuht.” Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1995.

Wickham, Chris. The Inheritance of Rome: A History of Europe from 400 to 1000. New York: Viking, 2009.

Zosimus. New History. Translated by Ronald T. Ridley. Canberra: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 1982.

 

Chapter 10: The Indian Ocean in the Early Muslim Era

Abu Zayd Hasan ibn Yazid al-Sirafi. Concerning the Voyage to the Indies and China. In Ancient Accounts of India and China by Two Mohammedan Travellers, Who Went to those Parts in the 9th Century. Trans. Eusebius Renaudot. 1733. Reprint, New Delhi: Asian Education Services, 1995.

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Aryasura, and Peter Khoroche. Once the Buddha Was a Monkey: Arya Sura’s Jatakamala. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1989.

Aung-Thwin, Michael. The Mists of Ramañña: The Legend that was Lower Burma. Honolulu: Univ. of Hawai’i Press, 2005.

Baladhuri, al-, Ahmad ibn Yahya (d. 892). The Origins of the Islamic State, being a translation from the Arabic, accompanied with annotations, geographic and historic notes of the Kitâb futûh al-buldân. Translated by Philip Khûri Hitti. Reprint New York: AMS Press, 1968–69.

Bielenstein, Hans. Diplomacy and Trade in the Chinese world, 589–1276. Boston: Brill, 2005.

Blench, Roger. “The Ethnographic Evidence for Long-Distance Contacts between Oceania and East Africa.” In The Indian Ocean in Antiquity, edited by Julian Reade, 417–38. London: Kegan Paul, 1996.

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Chakravarti, Prithwis Chandra. “Naval Warfare in Ancient India.” Indian Historical Quarterly4:4 (1930): 645–64. http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-ENG/cha.htm

Chakravarti, Ranabir. “Nakhudas and Navittakas: Shipowning Merchants in the West Coast of India (c. ad 1000–1500).” JESHO 43:1 (2000): 35–64.

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Chou Yi-liang, “Tantrism in China.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 8:3/4 (Mar. 1945): 241–332.

Christie, Jan Wisseman. “The Medieval Tamil-language Inscriptions in Southeast Asia and China.” JSEAS 29:2 (1998): 239–68.

Clark, Hugh R. “Muslims and Hindus in the Culture and Morphology of Quanzhou from the Tenth to the Thirteenth Century.” Journal of World History 6:1 (1995) 49–74.

Davis, David Brion. Slavery and Human Progress. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.

Deloche, Jean. “Iconographic Evidence on the Development of Boat and Ship Structures in India (2nd C. b.c.-15th C. a.d.” In Tradition and Archaeology: Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean, ed. by Himanshu Prabha Ray and Jean-François Salles, 199–224. New Delhi: Manohar, 1999.

Di Meglio, R. R. “Arab Trade with Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula from the 8th to the 16th Century.” In Islam and the Trade of Asia, ed. by D.S. Richards, 105–36. Oxford: Bruno Cassirer, 1970.

Elliot, H.M., and John Dowson, trans. The History of India, as Told by its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period. 8 vols. 1867–77. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1966.

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Flecker, Michael. “A Ninth-Century ad Arab or Indian Shipwreck in Indonesia: First Evidence for Direct Trade with China.” World Archaeology 32:3 (2001): 335–54.

———. “A Ninth-Century ad Arab or Indian Shipwreck in Indonesia: Addendum.” IJNA 37:2 (2008): 384–86.

Gunawardana, R.A.L.H. “Changing Patterns of Navigation in the Indian Ocean and their Impact on Pre-colonial Sri Lanka.” In The Indian Ocean: Explorations in History, Commerce and Politics, edited by Satish Chandra, 54–89. New Delhi: Sage, 1987.

Guy, John S. “Tamil Merchant Guilds and the Quanzhou Trade.” In The Emporium of the World: Maritime Quanzhou, 1000–1400, ed. by Angela Schottenhammer, 283–306. Leiden: Brill, 2000.Top of FormBottom of Form

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Haeri, Shahla. Law of Desire: Temporary Marriage in Iran. London: Taurus, 1989.

Hall, Kenneth R. “Economic History of Early Southeast Asia.” In Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 1.1:183–275.

Hall, Kenneth R. Maritime Trade and State Development in Early Southeast Asia. Honolulu: Univ. of Hawai’i Press, 1985.

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Hopkirk, Peter. Foreign Devils on the Silk Road: The Search for the Lost Treasures of Central Asia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Hourani, George F. Revised and expanded by John Carswell. Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times. Rev. ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Ibn al-Balkhi. Description of the Province of Fars in Persia at the Beginning of the Fourteenth Century A.D. Translated by G. Le Strange. London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1912. http://Persian.Packhum.Org/Persian/. Accessed February 24, 2006.

Ibn Khaldun. The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History. Translated by Franz Rosenthal. 3 vols. Bollingen Series 43. New York: Pantheon Books, 1958.

Jacq-Hergoualc’h, Michel. The Malay Peninsula Crossroads of the Maritime Silk Road (100 bc-1300 ad). Leiden: Brill, 2002.

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Kulke, Hermann. “The Naval Expeditions of the Cholas.” In Nagapattinam to Suvarnadvipa: Reflections on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia, edited by Hermann Kulke, K. Kesavapany, and Vijay Sakhuja, eds., 1–19. Nagapattinam to Suvarnadvipa Singapore: ISEAS, 2009.

Levy, Howard S. Biography of Huang Ch’ao. Translated by Howard S. Levy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1955.

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Margariti, Roxani Eleni. Aden & the Indian Ocean Trade: 150 Years in the Life of a Medieval Arabian Port. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2007.

McGrail, Sean. Boats of the World from the Stone Age to Medieval Times. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2001.

McPherson, Kenneth. The Indian Ocean: A History of People and the Sea. Delhi: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993.

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Mookerji, Radhakumud. Indian Shipping: A History of the Sea-Borne Trade and Maritime Activity of the Indian from the Earliest Times. London: Longmans, Green, 1912.

Mott, Lawrence. The Development of the Rudder: A Technological Tale. College Station: Texas A&M Press, 1997.*

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Muqaddasi, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-. The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions: A Translation of Ahsan al-Taqasim fi Maṙifat al-Aqalim. Trans. Basil Anthony Collins. Reading, UK: Centre for Muslim Contribution to Civilisation/Garnet, 1994.

Naji, Abdel Jabbar. “Trade Relations between Bahrain and Iraq in the Middle Ages: A Commercial and Political Outline.” In Bahrain through the Ages: The History. Edited by Abdullah bin Khalid al-Khalifa and Michael Rice, 423–44. London: Kegan Paul, 1991.

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Peacock, David, and Andrew Peacock. “The Enigma of ‘Aydhab: a Medieval Islamic Port on the Red Sea Coast.” IJNA 37:1 (2008): 32–48.

Risso, Patricia. Merchants and Faith: Muslim Commerce and Culture in the Indian Ocean. Boulder: Westview, 1995.

Rougeulle, Axelle. “Medieval Trade Networks in the Western Indian Ocean (8th-14th centuries): Some Reflections from the Distribution Patterns of Chinese Imports in the Islamic World.” In Tradition and Archaeology: Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean, edited by Himanshu Prabha Ray and Jean-François Salles, 159–80. New Delhi: Manohar, 1999.

Sen, Tansen. Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600–1400. Honolulu: Association for Asian Studies and University of Hawai’i Press, 2003.

Spear, Thomas. “Early Swahili History Reconsidered.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 33:2 (2000): 257–90.

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Sulayman al-Tajir. Account of India and China. In Arabic Classical Accounts of India and China, translated by S. Maqbul Ahmad. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study in association with Rddhi-India, Calcutta, 1989.

Tabari, al-. The History of al-Tabari. Vol. 36: The Revolt of the Zanj A.D. 869–879/A.H. 255–265. Translated by David Waines. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992.

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and

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